It is my opinion that the current generation could learn much from previous generations’ discussions concerning hell. As such I am here listing a number of works from the 18th, 19th centuries relating to post-mortem punishment by all sides of the debate. These are available on and it is my hope to, with time, consume these volumes myself and also to make them available on this site in an e-text format that will more easily allow for discussion and commentary upon them.


  • Shedd, W.G.T. The Doctrine of Endless Punishment. Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1886.
  • Edwards, Jonathan. The Salvation of All Men Strictly Examined; And the Endless Punishment of Those Who Died Impenitent, Argued and Defended Against the Objections… New Haven, A. Morse, 1790.
  • Plumptre, E.H. The Spirits in Prison and Other Studies on the Life After Death. London: William Isbister Limited, 1884.
  • Pusey, E.B. What is of Faith as to the Everlasting Punishment? Oxford, London: The Devonport Society of the Holy Trinity, 1880.


John Wesley Hanson

In my opinion, Hanson is the best representative (I have found) of 19th century Universalism, thus why he entitles a section aligned solely by himself. I am still searching for a similar orthodox writer with the sort of extensive writings on the topic that Hanson produced. While I have great respect for the abundance and quality of Hanson’s work, I must note that I find his use of sources (especially early Christian literature) to be somewhat wanting in discernment. He seems to have, at times, sought to find support where support is not truly granted. At the same time, I must note that this appears to be a tendency amongst both orthodox and non-orthodox writers I have read from this time period. Additionally, as so often happens, he at times seems to stretch the boundaries of interpretation to support his viewpoints.[1]

  • The Bible Hell: The Words Rendered Hell in the Bible, Sheol, Hadees, Tartarus, & Gehenna, Shown to Denote a State of Temporal Duration. Chicago, IL: D. A. Cashman, 1878.
  • Universalism The Prevailing Doctrine of the Christian Church During Its First Five Hundred Years with Authorities and Extracts. Boston, MA: Universalist Publishing House, 1899.
  • Aion-Aionios: An Excursus on the Greek Word Rendered Everlasting, Eternal, Etc., in the Holy Bible. Chicago, IL: Jansen, McClurg, & Company, 1880.
  • The Leaven at Work: Or, Some of the Concessions of Orthodoxy in the Direction of Universalism.
  • Bible Proofs of Universal Salvation; Containing the Primary Passages of Scripture That Teach the Final Holiness and Happiness of All Mankind. Chicago, IL: A.W. Hall & Co., 1877.
  • Bible Threatenings Explained: OR Passages of Scripture Sometimes Quoted to Prove Endless Punishment, Shown to Teach Consequences of Limited Duration. Chicago, IL: D.A. Cashman, 1878.
  • Witnesses to the Truth: Containing Passages from Distinguished Authors, Developing the Great Truth of Universal Salvation. Boston, MA: James M. Usher, 1854.
  • A Brief Debate on Universal Salvation and Endless Punishment Between John Wesley Hanson and Rev. John Hogarth Lozier. Chicago, IL: New Covenant Office, 1879.

Other Universalist

  • Sawyer, Thomas J. Endless Punishment: In the Very Words of its Advocates. Boston, MA: Universalist Publishing House, 1882.
  • Thayer, Thomas B. Origin and History of the Doctrine of Endless Punishment. Boston, MA: The Universalist Publishing House, 1855.
  • Thayer, Thomas B. Theology of Universalism: Being An Exposition of Its Doctrines And Teachings, In Their Logical And Moral Relations. Universalist Publishing House, 1891.

Other Authors

  • Walworth, C.A. and William Henry Burr. The Doctrine of Hell, Ventilated in a Discussion between the Rev. C.A. Walworth and William Henry Burr, Esq. New York, NY: The Catholic Publication Society, 1873.
  • Adams, Nehemiah. Endless Punishment: Scriptural Argument for, and Reasonableness of Future Endless Punishment. Boston, MA: D. Lothrop and Co., 1878.
  • Whiton, James Morris. Is “Eternal” Punishment Endless?: Answered by a Restatement of the Original Scriptural Doctrine, by an Orthodox Minister of the Gospel. Boston, MA: Lockwood, Brooks, and Co., 1876.
  • Livermore, D.P. Proof-Texts of Endless Punishment, Examined and Explained. Chicago, IL: D.P. Livermore, 1862.
  • Manford, Erasmus and J.S. Sweeney. A Discussion on Universal Salvation and Endless Punishment… Chicago, IL: Erasmus Manford, 1875.
  • Williamson, Isaac Dowd. An Examination of the Doctrine of Endless Punishment. Cincinnati, OH: John A. Gurley, 1847.
  • Lee, Luther and Eli Ballou. A Discussion on the Doctrine of Endless Punishment. Montpelier: Ballou & Loveland, 1857.
  • Skinner, Warren. Sermons on the Doctrine of Endless Punishment. 2nd Edition. Bennington: John C. Haswell, 1835.
  • Lake, E.H. Objections to the Doctrine of Endless Punishment. Boston, MA: James M. Usher, 1860.
  1. [1]Interestingly, his writings are also extensive on others topics, including an exhaustive biography of D.L. Moody.